Intimate Partner Violence and its Associated Factors among Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey
Introduction: In Nepal, Intimate partner violence (IPV) is quite common among women. Several factors can play a role for the incidence of intimate partner violence. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of lifetime IPV and last 12 months and associated factors among Nepalese women of reproductive age.
Methods: The Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016 data was used for secondary data analysis. In the study, a total of 3,826 women of reproductive age were included. Intimate partner violence was measured as reporting of physical and/ or sexual and/or emotional violence ever experienced in her lifetime as well as in the last 12 months. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were computed.
Results: Overall, 25.7% women have experienced lifetime intimate partner violence, with 22.1% physical, 7.8% sexual and 12.7% emotional violence. Findings from multivariate logistic regression showed that women belonging to lower caste (Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR):1.41, 95% Cofidence Interval(CI)=1.07-1.85), with no education (AOR:1.95, 95%CI=1.36- 2.79), with 3-5 number of children (AOR:1.57,95%CI=1.04-2.35), whose husband had no education (AOR:1.84,95% CI=1.27-2.66), whose husbands drank alcohol (AOR:2.54,95%CI=2.14-3.02) and the women who witness fathers beating their mothers (AOR:2.25,95%CI=1.81-2.78) were more likely suffering from intimate partner violence.
Conclusion: Intimate partner violence has been linked to socio-demographic factors, substance abuse, and previous experience of witnessing fathers beating their mothers. In Nepal, equal access to education for both men and women, prohibition of caste-based discrimination and prevention of substance abuse may be effective strategies for reducing intimate partner violence.