Distribution Factors of Candida species in Respiratory Tract of Elderly Population of Kathmandu.

  • Mamita Khaling Rai Department of Microbiology, Pokhara Bigyan Tatha Prabidhi Campus, Pokhara, Nepal 2
  • Krishna Gurung Department of Microbiology, Pokhara Bigyan Tatha Prabidhi Campus, Pokhara, Nepal 2
  • Devraj Joshi Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Abstract

Though normal flora of upper respiratory tract, Candida species are a significant clinical problem for a variety of immune compromised patients worldwide. Impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing’s syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions are the associated risk factors for the Candidiasis. The study was designed with the objectives of describing the distribution pattern of Candida species and some molds in the elderly and non elderly population randomly sampled from the three Oldage Care Centers. A total of 304 samples each of sputum and throat swabs were collected from the study objects having age 20-80 years. The specimens were cultured on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA). Candida isolates were identified on the basis of Gram stain, germ tube test, production of chlamydospore, sugar fermentation and assimilation test. The mold isolates were identified by cultural and microscopic characteristics. Out of total 304 samples of each sputum and throat swabs 16.45% and 5.3% samples respectively were growth positive for fungal culture. Among elderly population, 32.87% (47/143) of sputum and 9.8% (14/143) throat swabs showed culture positivity. In case of non elderly population however only 1.9% (3/161) sputum and 1.24% (2/161) throat swab samples were culture positive. In total, 56 Candida isolates (41 from sputum and 14 from throat swabs) were obtained. Significantly higher number of isolates was obtained from elderly population (38 from sputum and 12 from throat swabs) than non elderly population. Among three antimycotic drugs used, the Candida isolates were highly susceptible against Ketoconazole and resistant towards Fluconazole. Candida distribution was significantly associated with the age, respiratory tract problem and smoking habits of the study population. Elderly population having age above 50 years are in the high risk of drug resistant Candida infection.

Key Words: Candida, elderly population, sputum, throat swab, antimycotic susceptibility

Published
2019-11-21
How to Cite
Khaling Rai, M., Gurung, K., & Joshi, D. (2019). Distribution Factors of Candida species in Respiratory Tract of Elderly Population of Kathmandu. Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, 5(1), 5-8. https://doi.org/10.37107/jhas.25
Section
ORIGINAL ARTICLES