Maternal and Fetal Outcomes Following Cesarean Deliveries: A Retrospective Study
Introduction: Cesarean section (CS) was introduced in clinical practice as a life-saving procedure for both the mother and baby. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set a 15 percent minimum threshold for cesarean delivery to save the life of the mother and fetus. The rates of cesarean delivery have been increasing worldwide, leading to emerging public health issues affecting both developed and developing countries. This study examined the maternal and fetal outcomes of cesarean section at a tertiary-level hospital.
Methods: This study was based on secondary data retrieved from the record information of the registry of Maternity, Gynecological, Operation Theater, and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) ward of the regional hospital in western Nepal. A total of 5802 women delivered by cesarean section, those record had complete information of year 2013 to 2016 were analyzed. Data were collected through review guidelines developed by the researcher. Frequency and percentage were used to analyze the socio-demographic and obstetric information, indication of cesarean section, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and the obtained results presented in tables, graphs, and narratives. The Chi-square test was used to find out the association of cesarean section and its outcomes with demographic and obstetrics variables.
Results: The mean age of mothers was 25.25 ± 4.7 years,with the minimum and maximum age being 14 and 48 years respectively. Of the 5802 mothers, 17.1 percent of mothers had poor outcomes having some maternal complications. Regarding neonatal outcomes of 5872 neonates, 11.8 percent of new born had poor outcomes having some complications like low birth weight, asphyxia, etc. There was statistically significant association of age, ethnicity, and type of cesarean section with maternal outcomes. Similarly, weeks of gestation and mode of cesarean section were significantly associated with neonatal outcomes.
Conclusion: A large number of cesarean sections were emergency. Of the mothers who delivered by cesarean section majority of them and newborns had good outcomes. Mothers and neonates actual needs, contributory factors and outcomes following cesarean section need to be extensive evaluation before performing it.
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